Gender-Based Violence against Iraqi Interpreters during the US-led Invasion in 2003

Authors

  • Jasim Khalifah Sultan Al-Maryani College of Arts/ University of Basrah

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.31185/eduj.Vol4.Iss41.1942

Keywords:

Gender-based violence, Us-led invasion, male and female interpreters, Homo Narrans, culture-specific traditions

Abstract

       Iraqis have paid the highest cost for Washington’s decision to remove Saddam Hussein from power using military intervention in 2003. As important players who have actively participated in facilitating communication between the military forces and the locals, many coalition-employed Iraqi interpreters have consequently forcefully lost their homes, families, parts of their body, or even their lives. The dominant public opinion was that interpreters deserve such destiny as they are traitors who have helped foreign occupiers to murder, oppress, and humiliate their people. Another important, yet neglected in research, aspect intensifying the losses among interpreters was the deeply-rooted and culturally-specific restrictions on women’s freedom to work. Even patriot and loyal, female interpreters were socially looked at with suspicion and often viewed as prostitutes. The present article tries to attract attention to both the causes and consequences of this gender-based violence. It applies Walter Fisher’s (1984,1985,1987,1997) Narrative Paradigm wherein humans are Homo Narrans, i.e. storytellers who interpret and assess all forms of communication from a narrational perspective. Moreover, it conducts questionnaires with people who have lived the circumstances of this war, especially former male interpreters and independent observers. The quantitative analysis of the data shows an agreement among the participants on the role of gender on the quality and quantity of violence perpetrated against interpreters at that time. 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Aarif, Mohammed. (2006). Al-Eid’s Cry on Iraqi Translators. Al-Ittihad Magazine. Available at: https://www.alittihad.ae/wejhatarticle/23763/. Accessed data 9 February 2019.

Abbas, Yasir. (2013). Iraq War Caused me to Lose my Country. The Washington Post. Available at: .washingtonpost.com/opinions/iraq-war-caused-me-to-lose-my-country/2013/03/21/586df386-90b9-11e2-bdea-e32ad90da239_story.html?utm_term=.46cfd778e906. Acessessed date 10 February 2019.

Al Attia, Fawzia. (2006). Iraqi Women: Between Law and Culture. Gender Justice and Women’s Rights in Iraq. Available at https://law.depaul.edu/about/centers-and-institutes/international-human-rights-law-institute/publications/Documents/GJI_English.pdf. Accessed date 1 March 2019.

Al Damluji, Maysoon. (2006). Achieving Peace by Spreading the Culture of Human Rights and Women’s Rights. Gender Justice and Women’s Rights in Iraq. Available at https://law.depaul.edu/about/centers-and-institutes/international-human-rights-law-institute/publications/Documents/GJI_English.pdf. Accessed date 1 March 2019.

Al-Majid, Sulaiman bin Abdullah. (2009, January 3). Is Working as an interpreter with the US Army Permissible? Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZJVzaQ47rsM

Al Iraqi, Ishtar. (2009). The Interpreter of Occatation: The Wives of Occupation.Ghar Ishtar. Available at: http://ishtar-enana.blogspot.com/2009/01/blog-post_13.html. Accessed date 30 January 2019.

Al Sistani, Ali Hussain. (2018). The Simplified Fatwas. Available at: https://www.sistani.org/arabic/book/19/. Accessed data on 20 January 2019.

Baker, Mona. (2006). Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account. London and New York: Routledge.

Coon, Joe. (2017). The Long, Frustrating Fight to Get an Iraqi Interpreter Out of Baghdad and Into the U.S: Bringing Bandar Home. Reason Magazine. Available at: https://reason.com/2017/10/15/bringing-bandar-home/. Accessed date 23 February 2019.

Fisher, Walter. (1984). Narration as a Human Communication Paradigm: The Case of Public Moral Argument. Communication Monographs, vol.51, pp. 1-22.

Fisher, Walter. (1985). The Narrative Paradigm: An Elaboration. Communication Monographs, vol.52, pp. 347-367.

Fisher, Walter. (1987). Human Communication as Narration: Toward a Philosophy of Reason, Value, and Action. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Fisher, Walter. (1989). Clarifying the Narrative Paradigm. Communication Monographs, vol. 56, pp. 55-58.

Fisher, Walter. (1997). Narration, Reason, and Community. In Lewis P. Hinchman and Sandra K. Hinchman (eds). Memory, Identity, Community: The Idea of Narrative in the Human Sciences. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 307–27.

Inghilleri, Moria. (2008). The Ethical Task of the Translator in the Geo-political Arena from Iraq to Guantanamo Bay. Translation Studies, vol 1, no. 2, pp. 212-223.

Kadhim, Abbas. (2013). Reclaiming Iraq: The 1920 Revolution and the Founding of the Modern State. Texas: University of Texas Press.

Kaya, Zeynep N.(2016). Women, Peace, and Security in Iraq: Iraq’s National Action Plan to Implement. LSE Middle East Centre. Available at:

http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/67347/1/WPSIraq.pdf. Accessed date 4 April 2019.

Kochhar, Kalpana, Sonali Jain-Chandra, and Monique Newiak. (2013). Women, Work, and Economic Growth: Leveling the Playing Field. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Krane, Jim. (2005). The Most Dangerous Civilian Job in Iraq: Dozens of Translators for the U.S. Military have been Killed. The Associated Press. Available at:

www.nbcnews.com/id/7911356/ns/world_news-mideast_n_africa/t/most-dangerous-civilian-job-iraq/#.XhbPUm5uLIV. Accessed date 6 January 2019.

Miller, Christian. (2009). Chart: Iraqi Translators, a Casualty List. ProPublica Magazine. Available at: https://www.propublica.org/article/chart-iraqi-translators-a-casualty-list. Accessed date 9 February 2019.

Mustafa, Sarah. (2011). Thousands of Iraqi Translators who Worked for American Troops Live in Fear. The Daily Beast. Available at: https://www.thedailybeast.com/thousands-of-iraqi-translators-who-worked-for-american-troops-live-in-fear. Accessed date 21 February 2019.

Rebrisorean, Teodora. (2013). A Comparison of Women’s Rights: the Middle East and Western Society. Cultural Diplomacy & Human Rights.Availablehttps://culturaldiplomacyandhumanrights.wordpress.com/2013/05/29/a-comparison-of-womens-rights-middle-east-and-western-society/. Accessed date 2 March 2019.

Saldanha, Gabriela, and Sharon O’Brien. (2013). Research Methodologies in Translation Studies. London and New York: Routledge.

Shaheen, Hend. (2018). Five Limits to Women’s Freedom in the Arab World Facts, Figures, and Opportunities! Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom. Available at: https:mena.fnst.org/content/five-limits-womens-freedom-arab-world. Accessed date 20 February 2019.

Pergament, Danielle. ( 2008). Survival Sex: Iraqi Refugees. The Marie Claire Magazine. Available at:https:// www. marieclaire.com/politics/news/a1810/iraqi-refugees-prostitutes-sex/. Accessed date 20 February 2019.

Wang, Mendy. (2007). Eastern vs. Western Culture. FBB Mosaic, special issue. Available at: http://www.fcu.edu.tw/wSite/public/Attachment/f1279678092949.pdf. Accessed date 1 March 2019.

Williams, Kayla. (2006). Love My Rifle More than You: Young and Female in the U.S. Army. USA: Norton.

Downloads

Published

2020-12-05

How to Cite

Khalifah Sultan Al-Maryani, J. . (2020). Gender-Based Violence against Iraqi Interpreters during the US-led Invasion in 2003. Journal of Education College Wasit University, 4(41), 581-600. https://doi.org/10.31185/eduj.Vol4.Iss41.1942

Issue

Section

Articles