(التحولات السياسية في عصر الربيع والخريف (771-453 ق.م) (دراسة في تاريخ الصين القديم

  • سعد عبود سمار, أ.د. جامعة واسط / كلية التربية للعلوم الانسانية
  • ناصر رحيم عجيل جامعة واسط / كلية التربية للعلوم الانسانية

Abstract

      The three centuries AD 771-453 BC from the Spring and Autumn era in ancient China were years of intense authoritarian policies and fierce internal wars, and were based on the records of the Spring and Autumn records attributed to Confucius, which quoted 36 examples of the killing of kings and 52 cases in ending states , As well as its record of 483 wars in the period from 722-481 BC, which witnessed a growing decline in the central power of the ruling Zhou Dynasty, and weakness in the feudal system mainly, with the emergence of political crises that led to a dramatic moral decline in China The most horrific wars and abuses against the Chinese people have emerged, and through this study We are trying to reach the most prominent political transformations that occurred during this historic period, beginning with the fall of the western Chu and the family's migration eastward through the great civil wars and political divisions that resulted from the feudal system and its serious repercussions on the ancient Chinese society.

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References

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(18) Cho Yun Hsu , The Cambridge History of Ancient China , p.552.
(19) FRIEDRICH HIRTH ,THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF CHINA , p.197
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(34) Ibid , p.10.
(35) Cho Yun Hsu , The Cambridge History of Ancient China , p.554.
(36) Ibid , p.554.
(37) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.10.
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(64) Ibid , p.20.
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(74) Ibid , p.220.
(75) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.22.
(76) Yuri Pines , Zhou History and Historiography , p.307.
(77) Ibid , p.307.
(78) Nersen kopalyan , World Political Systems after Polarity , Routledge press , (London & New york – 2017 ) , p.36.
(69) Yuri Pines , Zhou History and Historiography , p.308.
(80) Ibid , p.308.
(81) FRIEDRICH HIRTH ,THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF CHINA , p.223.
(82) Cho Yun Hsu , The Cambridge History of Ancient China , p.558.
(83) Nersen kopalyan , World Political Systems after Polarity , p.36.
(84) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.22.
(85) Ibid , p.22.
(86) Yuri Pines , Zhou History and Historiography , p.308.
(87) FRIEDRICH HIRTH ,THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF CHINA , p.227.
(88) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.23.
(89) Cho Yun Hsu , The Cambridge History of Ancient China , p.558.
(90) Ibid , p.558.
(91) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.24.
(92) Yuri Pines , Zhou History and Historiography , p.319.
(93) Ibid , p.319.
(94) Васильев Л.С & З.М.ЕВСЕНИНА , В19 Древний Китай. Том 2. Период Чуньцю (VIH-V вв. до н.э.), p.121.
(95) Cho Yun Hsu , The Cambridge History of Ancient China , p.561.
(96) Dingxin Zhao, The Rise of the Early Chinese Empire and Patterns of Chinese History , p.27
(97) Ibid , p.27
(98) Васильев Л.С & З.М.ЕВСЕНИНА , В19 Древний Китай. Том 2. Период Чуньцю (VIH-V вв. до н.э.), p.127.
(99) Ibid , p.127.
(100) Ernest Caldwell , Social chang and Written low in early chinese legal thought ,p.20.
(101) Dingxin Zhao, The Rise of the Early Chinese Empire and Patterns of Chinese History , p.29.
(102) Ibid , p.29
(103) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.p.25-26
(104) Yuri Pines , Zhou History and Historiography , p.308.
(105) Ibid, p.309.
(106) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.p. 26-27
(107) Rowan k. Flad & Harvard Chen , Ancient Central China : Centers & Peripheries Along in the Yangzi River , Cambridge university press , ( Ney york – 2013 ) , p.110.
(108) Ibid , 110.
(109) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.p.32-33
(110) Cho Yun Hsu , The Cambridge History of Ancient China , p.564.
(111) Ibid , p.564.
(112) Robert Eno , Spring and Autumn China (771-453) , p.36.
Published
2019-06-21
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