قمة واشنطن 18-25 حزيران 1973

  • منتهى صبري مولى, م.د. جامعة البصرة / كلية التربية للبنات

Abstract

Studies of US-Soviet relations are important historical studies not only for the two countries but for the world in general. The fact that the relations of these two negative and positive countries affect not only them but all the countries of the world, Especially with the two-state conflict that began from the end of the Second World War to the present. The study of this research was devoted to the Washington summit of 18-25 November 1973, the duration of the summit which was a complement to the Moscow summit in May 1973 and the second summit of Moscow, to be held in 1974, The purpose of this study is to clarify the policy of the two countries and their desire to end their ongoing conflicts around the world in order to achieve their own benefits. The summit addressed important issues and ended with positive results Especially the issues of strategic arms control, European security, technology, communications and agriculture, but the most important feature of this summit is that it reached positive results for most of the issues that have remained stuck since the Moscow summit in 1972 and paved the way for another summit in Moscow to be decided in 1974.

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References

الوثائق الاجنبية المنشورة :
(1)-The Department State , Thw Washingtion Summit June 18-25,1973, Department of State Publication .8733 Eurobean and British Commonwlth series.79 , 1973 , .
ب-: الوثائق الاجنبية المنشورة على شبكة ( الإنترنت ) :
(1)- وثائق وزارة الخارجية الأمريكية ( FRUS)
U.S. Department of State , Foreign Relation.
على الموقع الالكتروني : www. State. gov/r/pa/ho/FRUS/ Nixon.
(2)- وثائق الأمن القومي الأمريكي ((NSA))المنشورة على شبكة الانترنت :.
The National Security ,American, Cited in :www. gwu . due ./n/NSAEBB/NSAEBB60,Book NO 60.
(3)-Agreement Between The United States OF America And The Union Of Soviet Sociallst Rerublics ON The Prevention of Nuclear War, Signed at Washington June 22, 1973 Entered into force June 22, 1973, https://fas.org/nuke/control/prevent/index.html.
(4)- The General Secretary's Radio and Television Address to the American People (June 24, 1973), Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. Presidential Documents, Richard Nixon, 1973. Dir. of publ.Office of the Federal Register. 2 July 1973, No 26, Volume 9, pages 831-878. Washington: US Governmenthttp://www.cvce.eu/obj/address_by_leonid_brezhnev_24_june_1973-en-287d87d7-3b40-4df5-8a10-b66e3806e952
ثانياً : المذكرات :.
أ- المذكرات باللغة العربية :.
1- هنري كيسنجر،سنوات كيسنجر في البيت الأبيض 1968-1973،ترجمة خليل فريجات ، ج3 الأردن ، 1999 .
ب- المذكرات باللغة الانكليزية :
(1)- Anatoly Dobrynin, in Confidence Moscow's Ambassador to Americas Six Cold War Presidents , London , 1995
(2)-Henry Kissinger, The White House Years, London , 1979.
(3)- Henry.Kissinger, Years of Years of Upheaval, Boston,1982.
ثالثا: الرسائل والاطاريح
أ- الرسائل والاطاريح العربية
1- منتهى صبري مولى المنصوري، قمة موسكو 1972 واثرها في العلاقات الامريكية – السوفيتية ، رسالة ماحستير غير منشورة ، كلية الدراسات التاريخية – جامعة البصرة ، 2010.
ب- الرسائل والاطاريح الاجنبية :
(1)-Galen Jackson , The Lost Peace: Great Power Politics and the Arab-Israeli Problem, 1967-1979, A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of. Philosophy in Political Science,2016. , ,
(2)-Richard J Moon: The Year of Europe: 1973/74 A Study in Alliance Diplomacy, PhD Thesis in International Relations MLondon School of Economics and Political Science March 1994, P.163. ; James K. Sebenius, L. Alexander Green, Eugene B. Kogan, Henry A. Kissinger as Negotiator Background and Key Accomplishments, New York, 2014
رابعاً : الموسوعات العربية
(1)- روجرز باركنسن، موسوعة الحرب الحديثة ، ج1، ت. سمير عبد الرحيم الجلبي ، بغداد، 1990،
(2)- عبد الوهاب الكيالي، السياسة الدولية ، ج3، 1993 ،بيروت،.
خامساً : المصادر العربية
(1)- إبراهيم سعد الدين ، كيسنجر والصراع في الشرق الأوسط ،بيروت،1975، ص9.
(2) -أدونيس العكرة،من الدبلوماسية إلى الإستراتيجية ( إمثولات من الحرب الباردة)،لبنان، 1981،ص97 ؛
(3)- جاد طه ، ألمانيا إلى أين المصير، دار المعارف – القاهرة ، 1990 ، ص120
(4)-راشد البراوي ، العلاقات السياسية الدولية والمشكلات الكبرى،ط1،مكتبة النهضة المصرية ،1972
سادساً: المصادر الاجنبية
(1)-evelyn goh, Nixon, Kissinger, and the “Soviet Card” in the U.S. Opening to China, 1971–1974, New York,
(2)-Donald J. Raleigh, “Man of Peace: Leonid Ilich Brezhnev and His Diaries” , (N.P), N.D
(3)-Jeffrey W. Hahn (2001). Regional Russia in Transition: Studies from Yaroslavl'. Woodrow Wilson Center Press. . 2011
(4)-Jussi Hanhimäki and Odd Arne Westad,(eds.), The Cold War . A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts, New York, 2003.
(5)-Hang nguyen, aShift in u.S. foreign policy under the Nixon administration and European political cooperation, Australia, (N.D
(6)-Fredrik Logovall ,and Preston, Andrew, Nixon in the World American Foreign Relation 1969-1977,Oxford university press , 2008
(7)- Stephen I. Schwartz, ed., Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of USNuclear Weapons Since 1940(Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1998)
(8)-Philip Gassert, and Others, The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War, 1945-1990 A handbook, Volume1- 2: 1968–1990, Washington ,2004,
9)- Robert Dallek ,Nixon And Kissinger Partners In Power, New York, 2007,.)
(10)- hitcomb John, Real Live at the White House ,New York,2000,
سابعاً: الصحف والمجلات الاجنبية
(1)-Bernard Gwertzmanmay 13, 1973'Brezhnev's Summit Visit To U.S. Scheduled June 18, The New York Times newspaper.
(2)-Baltic Journal of European Studies Tallinn University of Technology (ISSN 2228-0588), Vol. 6, No. 1 (20
Koprucu, Mustafa (3)- To Hanoi and Back: The U.S. Air Force and North Vietnam, 1966-1973 / the Transformation of American Airpower, Aerospace Power Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, Summer ,2001
تاسعاً : مواقع شبكة الانترنت :
http://en.wikipedia.org. (1)-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , Cited in
Published
2019-06-27
Section
Articles
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