A Pragmatic Study of Sufism in Shafak's Novel ''The Forty Rules of Love''
Keywords:Keywords: Sufism, Pragmatic Study, Grice's Theory of Implicature, Cooperative Principles.
The present study identifies the pragmatic aspects of Sufism in the English novel The Forty Rules of Love by the Turkish novelist Elif Shafak (2010). This study aims to clarify the concept of Sufism and its pragmatic aspects that are used in the Sufi language and particularly in Shafak’s novel The Forty Rules of Love. In order to achieve the aims of this study, the researchers adopt a model which is based on Grice’s Theory of Implicature and Cooperative principles (1975) by selecting Five representative texts from the English novel The Forty Rules of Love in order to represent and cover all the aspects of Sufism. The researchers follow two levels of analysis to examine the aspects of the Sufi language according to their contextual factors and pragmatic analysis. In this study, it is concluded that the Sufi language is represented by certain pragmatic aspects to reflect their philosophical ideas such as the concept of implicature. It is also concluded that the selected texts reflect the Sufi thoughts, themes, and symbolisms.
Birner, J. B. (2013). Introduction to Pragmatics. Library of Congress: Cataloging in publication Data.
Bouillier, G. & Stein, L. (2006). The mystery guest. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Chittick, W.C. (1994). The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn Al-Arabi’s Metaphysics of Imagination. New York: State University of New York Press.
Crystal, D. (2003). A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Cutting, J. (2002). Pragmatic and discourse: A resource book for student. London, New York: Routledge.
Forman, R. (1990). Mysticism and philosophy. New York: Oxford University press.
Geoffrey, E. (2010). Introduction to Sufism : the inner path of Islam. Bloomington, Ind. : World Wisdom.
Grice, P. (1975). Logic and Conversation. Berkeley: University of California.
Grundy, P. (1995). Doing Pragmatics. Hodder Arnold Publication.
Gupta, R. (2004). Sufism beyond religion. Delhi : B.R. Pub.
James, H. (1921). Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics , Vol. Xli. Columbia: University of New York.
Hatab, L. (1982). International Philosophical Quarterly. Mysticism and Language, 22 (1), 51-64.
Karamustafa, A. (2007). Sufism: the formative period. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Kovecses, Z. (2005). Metaphor in culture : universality and variation. New York: Cambridge university press.
Katz, S. (1992). Mysticism and Language. New York: Oxford university press.
Levinson, S. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: University Press.
Lyons, J. (1977). Semantics 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mey, J. L. (2001). Pragmatics: an Introduction. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Nicholson, R. (1963). The Mystics of Islam. London.
Peeran, S.L. (2016).The Essence of Islam, Sufism and its Impact on India. East -West Books, New Delhi.
Renard, J. (2009). The A to Z Sufism. Maryland: Scarecrow press Inc.
Saussure, F. (1968). Course in General Linguistics. New York: Philosophical Library.
Schimmel, A. (1975). Mystical Dimensions of Islam. North Caroline: University of North Carolina Press.
Schimmel, A.& Ernst, C. (2011). Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill : The University of North Carolina Press.
Sedgwick, M. (2012). Neo-Sufism. Journal of the Cambridge Companion to New Religious Movements.
Simuh. (2016). Sufism Jawa. Yogyakarta: Narasi.
Smith, N. V. (ed.) (1982). Mutual Knowledge. London: Academic Press.
Yahya, M. (1992). Sufi movements in eastern India. Delhi Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli.
Web Source (1)
http: // eggankosh.ac.in// handle/ 123456789/ 20199. [ Accessed in 22 September, 2019].
Web source (2)
https: // www.gettyimages.com[ Accessed in 12 September, 2019].